Battlefield Guides to the 1st Tennessee
Shiloh, TN National Park
Special Note: Before the Battle of Shiloh the 1st TN was on garrison duty around Chattanooga, TN. When a train arrived to take the regiment to Corinth, MS to join Johnston's army, they found room for only half the regiment. Companies F-K were sent first and arrived in time to participate in the battle. Companies A-E reached Corinth on April 7 and subsequently were only used as part of the rear guard. The regiment was reunited a few days after Shiloh in Corinth, MS. Therefore the 1st Tennessee Infantry Regiment is usually referred to as the 1st Tennessee Infantry Battalion on park plaques.
#1-Camp on Corinth Road April 5 (not on the national park): Located outside of the park on Highway 22 just south of Bark Road. You will find the plaques for the 1st Tennessee camp location the night of April 5. The regiment spent the night at this location and at 7 a.m. the next day, April 6, the 1st Tennessee was detached from the rest of the brigade and sent to support Colonel Forrest at a ford at Lick Creek.
The regiment camped in the field to left of the plaque
#2-Ford at Lick Creek (not on the national park): The 1st Tennessee supports Colonel Nathan B. Forrest's Cavalry and the 19th Tennessee Infantry in blocking a ford over Lick Creek and scouting the area in the direction of Hamburg to verify that there are no Federals present there. At 11 a.m. Colonel Maney is satisfied there are no Federals in this direction and proceeds north to join the battle.
#3-Preparation for the Assault on the Hornet's Nest (located near Tour Stop 12): Colonel Maney reports to General Cheatham and takes command of Stephen's Brigade (Stephens himself has already left the field by this point). Cheatham directs Maney to attack the Federals near the George Cabin. He sets up the 9th Tennessee on the left, the 1st Tennessee in the middle, and the 19th Tennessee is put in position a little further down on the right. The 6th Tennessee and the 7th Kentucky are placed in reserve of this line. Behind them General Johnston was dying (unbeknown to the regiment at the time). At 2:30 p.m. Maney sent his attack forward across the open field in front of you.
The 1st Tennessee attacks across the field to the front of this plaque (the George Cabin is visible in the distance)
#4-Assault on the Hornet's Nest (located near Tour Stop 13): Colonel Maney moves the brigade forward quickly. The 1st Tennessee manages to get a foothold in the woods behind the cabin before they draw the attention of the Federals. Maney orders the brigade to lie down until the Federals empty most of their muskets. When the Federals have done so he orders the brigade forward and they rout the Federals to their front this attack. Maney's penetration of the Hornet's Nest line helps cause the Federal defense here to crumble and eventually surrender not long after. The 1st Tennessee moves advances a little further that afternoon but the battle comes to halt and they return to this area that night.
The 1st Tennessee overruns the Federals in the woods pictured here
#5-April 7 line (on Hamburg-Purdy Road directly south of George Cabin): On the morning of April 7 Maney was ordered to take his brigade and push the Federals away from an area on the Hamburg-Purdy Road. Maney's Brigade and the 1st Tennessee succeed in doing and hold their location. The Federals make several demonstrations as if they are going to counter attack but never do. At 1 p.m. the 1st Tennessee is ordered to withdraw from the field and occupy their old camp from the night before the battle.
The marker on the position the 1st Tennessee held on April 7
Perryville, KY State Park
#1-Tour Stop 5-Maney's Brigade Comes Under Attack: The 1st Tennessee's battle begins at this location. Maney had the brigade stacked in two lines. The 1st Tennessee at this location was in the reserve line on the left flank. The front line of Maney's brigade assaulted the Federals in this location. The Federal line caves in and falls back to the Open Hill or Parson's Ridge (Tour Stop 7) with Maney in pursuit. Continue down the trail to Tour Stops 6&7.
#2-Tour Stop 6&7-Assault on Parson's Ridge: Maney's advance line again strikes the Federals who put up a stronger defense this time on the hill in front of you. Maney begins to send in his reserve line (including the 1st Tennessee) but the Federals are routed as the reserve line draws near. The Federals flee to Starkweather's Hill (Tour Stop 9). Continue down the trail.
#3-Tour Stop 8&9-Assault on Starkweather's Hill: Maney continues over Parson's Ridge into a cornfield on the opposite side. The 1st Tennessee is ordered to the right flank of the brigade and marches forward through the cornfield to the Benton Road (Now called Whites Road). From Parson's Ridge looking at Starkweather's Hill the regiment assaulted the Federal right flank resting on the hill where the two cannons currently are. These same cannons fire canister into the oncoming 1st Tennessee. Follow the trail to Whites Road. Upon reaching the road the Federal battery could no longer depress their guns to hit them. The 1st Wisconsin is brought up to support the battery. Walk up the hill to where the two cannons lay. Here the 1st Tennessee and 1st Wisconsin fight hand to hand around the guns. The 1st Wisconsin falls back, but the 1st Tennessee does as well in confusion. Eventually both regiments regroup and start towards the guns again. The 1st Wisconsin is again forced back and the 1st Tennessee pursues them.
#4-Not on State Property-1st Tennessee High Water Mark: This portion of the 1st Tennessee's battle is on private land though you can see from Starkweather's Hill. The 1st Tennessee pursues the 1st Wisconsin to the ravine at the base of Starkweather's Hill. There will be another hill facing you with several farm buildings. The Federals from Parson's Ridge had regrouped on this hill and began firing on the 1st Tennessee. While the 1st Tennessee had broken through Starkeweather's Hill, the rest of Maney's brigade was still fighting the remnants of the Federal line still on the hill. With the 1st Tennessee isolated they began to take massive casualties from the Federals in front and from two regiments retreating down the Benton Road. Eventually the 1st Wisconsin regroups and charges back after them. They clash in the ravine and the 1st Wisconsin manages to take the 1st Tennessee's flag. The 1st Wisconsin wins this fight and the 1st Tennessee falls back to Starkweather's Hill. The 1st Tennessee is knocked out of the fight and remains on Starkweather's Hill for the rest of the battle. After the battle ends Private Marcus Toney of Company B buries 27 members of the Rock City Guards in the ravine where the regiment fought.
Stones River National Battlefield
#1-Site of Brick Kiln: The site of the 1st Tennessee's main action is actually off site of the Park. If you are on Thompson Lane and then turn west onto the Wilkinson Pike you will come to the outer rim of the park property. On your left you will see a row of houses that occupy the site where the 1st Tennessee dodged shells in the friendly fire incident. The 1st Tennessee upon realizing they were fighting Federals charged across the pike and stormed the woods on the north side of the road.
#2-Slaughter Pen: You will need to make your way into the park and go to Tour Stop 2 on the park map. This rocky area in the trees is the area the 1st Tennessee stormed after crossing the Wilkinson Pike. They drove the Federal infantry and artillery occupying the woods the rocks towards the Visitor Center at the front of the park. There was little resistance between the Slaughter Pen and the Nashville Pike.
#3-Final Position: This large field near the Visitor's Center was the No Man's Land on the evening of December 31, 1862. On the Nashville Pike (the main road near the Visitor's Center and National Cemetery) the Federal line reassembled at this position. The Confederates (including the 1st Tennessee) formed opposite. The 1st Tennessee saw no combat after December 31 at Stones River. When Bragg's assault two days later failed, the entire army was withdrawn.
Chickamauga, GA National Battlefield
#1-Dalton's Ford: This is the site where the 1st Tennessee would have most likely crossed Chickamauga Creek. As of 2006 the site was not available to cars but walking was permitted.
*At the intersection of the Alexander's Bridge Road and the Brotherton Road is a small parking lot you will need to park at to visit the next three sites.*
#2-1st Tennessee Advance Position: From the parking lot walk down the Brotherton Road till you see a trail cutting into the woods to your right. There will be a maker near the trail with information on Maney's brigade moving into the woods. Go down the trail till it dead ends further into the woods. At this location was Maney's line. It was held from 12:30-2:30 p.m. on September 19. To your right will be a 1st/27th Tennessee Marker near the Turner's Battery marker. The 1st Tennessee was formed at a right angle at this position defending the right flank of the brigade.
#3-Joe Campbell Marker Site: Walking back down the trail from which you came, cross the Brotherton Road to the other side. There you will see the trail continues down into the woods. It was through these woods the 1st Tennessee retreated after being driven from the hill. You will walk passed the General Preston Smith Monument that marks the location where the general was killed. Near this site would have occurred the incident from Co. Aytch where General Smith asked Sam Watkins if Maney's Brigade was retreating. Smith's brigade attempted to help cover the withdrawal of Maney's brigade. Continue down the trail and eventually on your right there will be another trail. This trail will lead you to what looks like a tombstone. This is the marker of Private Joe Campbell of Company C. Campbell was originally from Franklin, TN and had attended Harpeth Academy. He was working at a cannon factory in Nashville when the war broke out. At Stones River he was wounded in the arm crossing the Wilkinson Pike and was in the hospital until days before the battle of Chickamauga. With his arm still not completely healed he demanded the color bearer allow him to carry the flag on September 19. When Maney's brigade fell back from the ridge, Campbell stood on a stump waving the flag attempting to rally his fellow soldiers. A federal bullet eventually struck him in the head killing him instantly in this location. He was buried near the Alexander House that night.
#4-Huggins Battery Marker: Get back on the trail and take a right. Just before you reach the Alexander's Bridge Road there will be a marker where the trail ends. This marks the location of Huggins Battery. Companies D & I (holding the right flank of the regiment) retreated down the Alexander's Bridge Road for the most part. George Nichols of Company D recalls him and several of his company coming across the Battery. Captain Huggins told them he could hold if they would stay with him. The position held for a short time, but was eventually overrun. Two pieces were abandoned, the third was pulled off by what horses were left, and the fourth was dragged away by volunteers of the 1st Tennessee.
*Walk down the Alexander's Bridge Road to the parking lot. It should be in view from where the trail ends.*
#5-Assault on Kelly Field (Marked as Tour Stop 2 on Park Maps): The 1st Tennessee was held in reserve for most of September 20. Towards night fall they were ordered north on the Alexander's Bridge road. At this location the 1st Tennessee fought in the assault that would eventually drive Thomas's men from the field. There will be a marker with 1st/27th Tennessee and/or Maney's brigade right along the tree line next to the road. The regiment hit the Federal works at this location and pushed over the works. The Federals did not put up much resistance and fled as the assault was coming.
Kennesaw Mountain National Park
Special Note: The 1st Tennessee occupied one location during the battle that is located on Cheatham Hill. The Kennesaw Mountain National Park is very large and takes some time to reach Cheatham's Hill from the Visitors Center (which is located on Big Kennesaw).
#1-The Dead Angle: To reach this location park at Tour Stop 3 on Park maps and walk down the right path in front of you. This will lead you to the Illinois Monument which is an enormous statue that you cannot miss. Dwarfed next to it are some eroding trenches that the 1st Tennessee once occupied on June 27, 1864 and comprise the Dead Angle. The Federals hit the position and the Confederates repulsed them with many Federal causalities and few Confederate. The Federals then fell back down the hill only a short distance to the slope of the hill and lay down. The Confederate were placed on the actual crest of the hill and therefore when the Federals fell back, the Confederates could no longer see or shoot them. The Federals attempted to dig a tunnel to blow up the Confederate works (which is still visible below the Illinois Monument) but the Confederates retreated before it was completed.
Pictures of the Dead Angle trenches and the Federal Tunnel below the Illinois Monument.